Scipiones et Laelii

One of the most proverbial multi-generation alliances is between Scipiones and Laelii. The elder Scipio and elder Laelius were very close allies both in war and politics. Scipio was naturally the leading party with the history, resources and connections of the Cornelii Scipiones. However, Scipio’s career could hardly have been possible without the support of men like C. Laelius, whom Scipio raised into consulship at 190. This was a standard procedure: more weighty statesman raises his friend into consulship and thus gurantees his own power too.

However, what makes this pair a lot more interesting are their off-spring. Scipio’s son adopted the son of extremely influental Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus, and this adopted son we know as Scipio the younger. C. Laelius had a son, C. Laelius the younger, who became as close ally of Scipio the younger as his father had been for elder Scipio. And again, younger Scipio raised the younger Laelius into consulship for 140.

And to add further interest, the alliance between Scipiones and Laelii was not sealed by marriages. This is interesting. Usually such strong ties would also include a marriage or two. There certainly would have been candidates of right age at both side, so we must look for another explanations, of which there actually are a number of:

1) There simply wasn’t need for Scipiones to the Laelii more closely with them – the success of Laelii was hugely dependent on the support of Scipiones. The Laelii would probably welcomed a marriage, but on the other hand the alliance with Scipiones being strong, that left the Laelii free to make arrangements with other families.

2) The arrogance of Scipiones: Scipiones of any generation were not actually known for their modesty and restrain in showing their importance. Marriage with low-born Laelii would have gone against Scipiones pride, they after all married with families like Aemilii Paulli.

3) Peculiar Scipionic trait of keeping it together in the family. The daughter of elder Scipio married a Scipio Nasica, a relative of her father rather than left family line and fortune to scatter about. This wasn’t only intra-family marriage within Scipiones. Probably the main idea was to protect and collect the considerable family fortune into one hands.

4) There was more to be gain by keeping potential enemies closer than current friends.

Whatever the reason was, the family-ties of Laelii seem to omit the connection with the Scipiones totally: a healthy reminder of the multitude of tactics the Roman families used to survive.

Scipiones et Laelii

2 x Laelia + 2 x Mucia + 2 x Licinia

This is very interesting 3-generation long pair of daughters. The younger Laelius had two daughters. Laelia minor married consul C. Fannius and elder Laelia married Q. Mucius Scaevola augur, consul of 117. So the daughters of younger Laelius both were married into consular level families, which if of course straight from the Roman nobility playbook. Scaevola was also a close ally of younger Scipio as was Fannius too. Scipionic circle in this case obviously meant wedding ring!

The elder Laelia and Scaevola had again two daughters, elder of which married a son of consular Acilius Glabrio (and their son became consul too at 67). The younger Mucia married L. Licinius Crassus orator, consul of 95, who also allied with Scaevolae and what was left of the Scipionic circle. This younger Mucia finally too had two daughters with Licinius Crassus, the younger of which married the son of Marius, who became consul at 82. The elder Licinia Crassa married with no other than Scipio Nasica Serapio, whose grandmother was the daughter of the elder Scipio. So now finally after 4 generations the Scipio and Laelius -lines were united by matrilinear side!

These generations of Laelia major, Mucia minor and Licinia Crassae were also close to Cicero, as Cicero studied as young boy/man in the Scaevola and Crassus households. Cicero also included C. Laelius Sapiens in numerous of his writings. Cicero also mentions that the Laeliae and Muciae were particularly well known for the purity of their Latin.

All in all these three generations of sister-pairs gives a very interesting glimpse into the life of the Roman nobility and to the tactics and importance of the marriages. One is tempted to see here greater family community and transformation of political ties into network of extended family.

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Licinia who was banned to mourn for her husband

When a certain Quintus Antyllius was beaten to death by angry crowd in 121, a chain of events, that left its mark to the Roman history forever, was set loose. This Antyllius was an attendant of L. Opimius, consul of the year, and his killers were supporters of C. Gracchus and M. Fulvius Flaccus. This murder, that Gracchus actually did not approve, was a needed pretext for Opimius to get a senatus consultum ultimum, an emergency degree of the Senate to defend the republic – also establishing this very dangerous political tool for future years to be used as ultimate measure in internal power struggles.

L. Opimius got the Senate to arm itself and to command all members of the equesterians to arm themselves along with two slaves each and to assemble next morning. At this point there was no turning back from the road of violence. Fulvius and his supporters armed themselves for the morning meeting from the spoils of Fulvius’ Gallic battles, but C. Gracchus refused both to wear armour and to arm himself with anything else than a dagger.

When Gracchus was leaving his home, his wife Licinia begged him not to go as she knew as well as he, that Gracchus would be killed if he went to the public meeting. When Gracchus went and left Licinia crying, the slaves carried devastated Licinia into her brother’s house.

After half-hearted attempt for negotiations L. Opimius ordered the violence to start and following tumult saw Fulvius to be put into death along with his oldest son and many supporters. Gracchus fled having taken no part into fighting and after a prayer in the temple of Diana at Mons Aventinus continued his escape into a grove across the river Tiber sacred to Furrina, where he committed a suicide.

Opimius had announced, that whomever brings the head of Gracchus to him will recieve its weight of gold. A certain Septimuleius did this and the head was weighted to be exceptionally heavy – Septimuleius had removed the brain and poured melted lead into the skull! The bodies of Gracchus, Fulvius and 3000 of their supporters were thrown into Tiber. The property of dead was confiscated and their wives were forbidden to mourn their husbands. Licinia was also stripped of her dowry. Opimius on the other hand built the temple of Concordia to the Forum Romanum – a distasteful act to many.

Later on Licinia’s cause was successfully defended by a half-brother of his father and she got the confiscated dowry back. Who was this Licinia?

The family tree of the Sempronii Gracchi and Licinia Crassa, the wife of tribune C. Sempronius Gracchus.

The family tree of the Sempronii Gracchi and Licinia Crassa, the wife of tribune C. Sempronius Gracchus.

She was daughter of P. Licinius Crassus Dives Mucianus, consul of the year 131. Father Mucianus was originally known as P. Mucius Scaevola and was a son of P. Mucius Scaevola (consul of 175) and Licinia (a sister of consul 171 P. Licinius Crassus and consul of 168 C. Licinius Crassus). Mucianus was adopted by consul of 171 Licinius Crassus, that is a brother of his mother. Mucianus married with Claudia, daughter of consul 177 C. Claudius Pulcher and unknown mother. Claudia’s brother was consul of 143 and her ancestors from father side were consuls in three generation. Also Mucianus was both biologically as well as through adoption of consular rank. So Licinia’s both parents were from the very top of Roman nobility of the 170’s.

Licinia’s husband C. Gracchus was also of very strong consular line. His father was consul of 177 and 163, the famous Ti. Sempronius Gracchus, who was one of the leading public figures of his era. Father Sempronius was allied with his consular colleague of 177, C. Claudius Pulcher and probably from this alliance also came wish to strengthen the alliance further by marriage of the offspring. Father Sempronius had son and Claudius had a grand daughter Licinia from his daughter Claudia. Licinia also brought family connections with Licinii Crassi and Mucii Scaevolae, both of which were leading families during the period. Interesting enough, C. Gracchus’ brother Tiberius was married with, you guessed it, Claudia, who was a daughter of consul 143 Ap. Claudius Pulcher, himself son of consul 177 Claudius! So the two families were very tightly allied.

C. Gracchus had very high profile family also from his mother’s side. His mother Cornelia Africana was a daughter of the Scipio the elder, P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus, consul of 205 and 194 and the hero of the Punic Wars. Cornelia’s mother was Aemilia Paulla, a daughter of L. Aemilius Paullus, consul of 219 and sister of L. Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus, consul of 182 and 168. Both Scipones and Aemilii Paulli were leading families of the previous era and Cornelia Africana surely the most high born lady of her time according to the Roman way of looking things.

One way to look at the life of Licinia is to view it as pre-arranged in many ways. With such high born parents she would be marrying some other equally high born man. The same goes with C. Gracchus. We do not know about their relationship anything else than the dramatic parting of Gracchus to meet his destiny, but perhaps we can read between the lines that the marriage was a happy one. Why Opimius also wanted to confiscate the dowry of Licinia? Perhaps there we can see also a hint of Licinia being politically active figure in some way too? The successful court case some years later, advocated by the consul of 133 P. Mucius Scaevola, a biological brother of Licinia’s father as well as a son of Licinia the elder (wife of consul 175 Scaevola), also tells us about changing political situation in Rome and perhaps a little something about Licinia and her position in the Roman society.

Still, the central influence of the family connections in the Roman politics is very clear. In fact, drawing the distinction between politics, family, life and death is difficult. C. Gracchus’ elder brother was murdered because of his politics. C. Gracchus continued and was in fact even more radical than his brother and was driven into suicide.

This can be seen also from the lives of two other of the closest women in C. Gracchus’ life: his mother and sister. The conservative opposition to the agenda of brothers Gracchi was lead by the Scipiones before L. Opimius. When the elder Scipio died in unclear circumstances, both Cornelia Africana, his own daughter and mother of Gracchi, as well as Sempronia, the sister of Gracchi were suspected of murdering him in their turn! Sempronia was also the wife of Scipio the younger (who was a biological child of L. Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus the consul of 182 and 168, i.e. brother of Cornelias mother Aemilia), and we know that their marriage was not a happy one.

The family connections designed to unite, did not necessarily work that way. At least when Licinia and C. Gracchus had such deep and diverse family connections on top of, or actually behind the more faster changing daily political struggles and alliances. For Licinia and Gracchus they were questions of life and death. They even controlled how Licinia was allowed to express her feelings for the death of his husband. What Licinia thought of all this, what she felt? We never know.

And what happened to L. Opimius? He was appointed as a commander to the Jugurthine War, was bribed by king Jugurtha to delay the war and spent rest of his days in exile.

How to survive in Rome

Let’s examine the family connections of the consuls of the year 177: C. Claudius Pulcher & Ti. Sempronius Gracchus.

Gracchus (consul of 177 and 163) was married to Cornelia Africana, a daughter of P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus (consul of 205 and 194) and Aemilia Paulla. This Cornelia Africana was politically probably the most interesting daughter of Roman nobility of her era. Her parents were both from the most influental consular families. Furthermore, Cornelia’s uncle was L. Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus (consul of 182 and 168).

This uncle Paullus Macedonicus had two sons. First one was adopted into family of Fabii Maximi: Q. Fabius Maximus Aemilianus (consul of 145). The second one was adopted by P. Cornelius Scipio (praetor of 174): P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus (consul of 147 and 134). This P. Cornelius Scipio, who adopted him, was Cornelia Africana’s brother, i.e. son of Scipio Africanus. Evidently the family ties between Cornelii Scipiones and Aemilii Paulli were very tight.

However, the ties were to become even more tighter. Adopted Scipio Aemilianus Africanus was to marry Sempronia, who was a daughter of Cornelia Africana with Ti. Sempronius Gracchus.

The other children of the consul 177 Gracchus, named as Gaius and Tiberius, were also to marry into important ruling families.

Younger Gaius married with Licinia Crassa, who as a daughter of P. Licinius Crassus Dives Mucianus (consul of 131) and Claudia (the daughter of C. Claudius Pulcher, consul of 177). The grandparents of this Licinia Crassa from paternal side were P. Mucius Scaevola (consul of 175) and Licinia. We know very little of this elder Licinia, but we know that her grandfather was C. Licinius Varus (consul of 236) and that her brothers were C. Licinius Crassus (consul of 168) and P. Licinius Crassus (consul of 171). This Publius was to become also adoptive father of her son, above mentioned Crassus Dives Mucianus. Note that these were far from being only familiy ties between Mucii Scaevolae and Licinii Crassi: I have written before about the consuls of 95.

But added to the alliance of the Scaevolae and Crassi, there is very interesting similarity between the sons of Cornelia Africana and Gracchus (consul of 177). As said above, younger Gaius married Licinia, who was a grand daughter of Claudius Pulcher (consul of 177), i.e. his father’s consular colleague. Elder Tiberius in his turn married Claudia, who was daughter of Ap. Claudius Pulcher (consul of 143). This Appius was the son of the above mentioned C. Claudius Pulcher (consul of 177). So both Gracchus’ sons were to marry grand childrens of his consular colleague!

Here is a simplified diagram of the above mentioned family ties between Sempronii Gracchi, Claudii Pulchri, Cornelii Scipiones, Aemilii Paulli, Mucii Scaevolae and Licinii Crassi.

Family ties between Sempronii Gracchi, Claudii Pulchri, Cornelii Scipiones, Aemilii Paulli, Mucii Scaevolae and Licinii Crassi.

Family ties between Sempronii Gracchi, Claudii Pulchri, Cornelii Scipiones, Aemilii Paulli, Mucii Scaevolae and Licinii Crassi. Click for larger image.

From these ties we can see how tight group the highest Roman nobility was. We have here the consuls of following years: 194, 182, 177, 175, 171, 168, 163, 147, 145, 143, 134 and 131. That is over 10 % of the Roman consuls between years 194 and 131, all in this closely tied selection. When counting all the consulships from these families from this period of 63 years, we see that over 19 % of all consulships are taken by the members of these families, that is about one fifth. Longest period when no one from these families was a consul is 7 years from 154 to 148.

Considering all other elected offices of the Roman state, which one had to be elected into before being elected into consul, it is safe to assume that that every year during this period some members of these families were serving as elected officials. Favours and returned favours must have been everyday occurrances. When we consider that also the offices of the Roman religion were part of the political system, and that the members of these families were also active in being selected into religious offices, the amount and importance of these contacts between these families grows evermore higher.

It is long known that marriages and adoptions were integral part of the Roman politics, but one really grasps the importance of them when one considers the system from the perspective of the survival of the family in the political system. There were no lone wolves in the Roman republic, one belonged into family. I have illustrated this by selecting the consuls of one year, and kept the listing of family ties in the minimum here for clarity. Still what we have discovered here, by mere scratching of surface, is complicated system of family alliances and contacts.

Licinius married with Mucia and Mucius married with Licinia

I would like to take a look into manyfold family connections of the three consuls discussed previously in the context of general Roman history, namely the consul of 96 Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus and consuls of 95 L. Licinius Crassus and Q. Mucius Scaevola.

threeconsuls1

The family lines of three consuls.

There is a very strong connection between the Licini Crassi and Mucii Scaevolae through marriages. This is perhaps the reason why Crassi wished to send their son to serve with Ahenobarbus (cos 122). On the other hand we do not know anything about the marriages of Ahenobarbi before the children of Ahenobarbus (cos 96), so it might very well be that there had been connections there as well.

threeconsuls2

The marriages of the Ahenobarbi are unfortunately very poorly known.

Consuls of 95 are an interesting pair: Licinius married with Mucia and Mucius married with Licinia. In fact their grandparents were sisters. Consul of 171 P. Licinius Crassus is grandfather of consul 95 Licinius Crassus while his sister is grandmother of consul 95 Mucius Scaevola. Grandfather Crassus also adopted the uncle of consul 95 Scaevola, thus making him also an uncle by adoption to consul 95 Crassus!

threeconsuls3

Family relations of the consuls of the year 95.

Their marriages are also of an interest in this context. Crassus was married with Mucia, a daughter of cousin of Scaevolas father. This means that the line of Licinii Crassi that consul 95 Crassus belongs to is allied by adoption and marriage into both surviving lines of Mucii Scaevolae.

Perhaps not to be left second in this bonding, consul 95 Scaevola married not just one, but two Liciniae. The family connections of them are not clear, but I think it is a pretty safe to guess that they were close enough the consul of 95 Crassus, although we must keep in mind that Licinii were a rather large family with many lines.

In any case the three generations of Crassi and Scaevolae were closely connected with each other by several ties in family. Consul 171 Crassus, consul 175 Scaevola, consul 174 Scaevola, consul 133 Scaevola, consul 131 Scaevola (adopted as Crassus), consul 117 Scaevola, consul 95 Crassus and consul 95 Scaevola make a formidable multi-generation power block of 8 consuls in 80 years with close family ties! To these ties we know to add also Laelia and Claudia. Laelia was a daughter of C. Laelius Sapiens, consul of 140, she was married with consul of 117 Scaevola. Claudia was a daughter of C. Claudius Pulcher, consul of 177, and she was married with P. Mucius Scaevola (adopted as P. Licinius Crassus Dives Mucianus, consul of 131. We might perhaps see here a finger print of either his biological father consul of 175 Scaevola or of adopted father consul of 171 Crassus – in any case this Claudia was very nicely connected with Claudii Pulchri, being also a sister of consul 143 Pulcher.

threeconsuls4

Connections of the extended families of the consuls of 95.

While not omnipotent, these family ties alone certainly made Crassus-Scaevola family block a force to reckon for anyone active in politics in Rome during the years of 170 – 95.

Licinii Crassi and Mucii Scaevolae had further interesting family ties with two powerful group of families: the Cornelii Scipiones and Caecilii Metelli. These ties were forged through marrying the daughters of Licinii with these families. Daughter of consul 131 Crassus (Scaevola) and Claudia was married to C. Sempronius Gracchus, who was a son of Ti. Sempronius Gracchus and Cornelia Africana, daughter of famous hero of Punic Wars, Scipio Africanus.

Daughter of consul 95 Licinius Crassus was married with P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica Serapio, who was consul at 111. Their son Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica was adopted by Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius (consul of 80) who in turn was married with Licinia of unknown relation to the Licini Crassi. Another daughter of consul of 95 Crassus was married to C. Marius, who was son of famed C. Marius, seven time consular.

Also Scaevola consul 95 had ties to the Caecili Metelli. With his first Licinia he had a daughter Mucia, who was married first with same C. Marius, consul of 82, as Licinia of his fathers consular colleague. Second time Mucia married with Cn. Pompeius Magnus and for third time with M. Aemilius Scaurus, who was son of M. Aemilius Scaurus, consul of 115 and famed princeps senatus, and Caecilia Metella. To close the circle the first Licinia of Scaevola consul 95 married with Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos, consul of 98, although this might not have had any particular political advantage to Scaevola, because he divorced the first Licinia because of her adultery!

cos 96 and 95

All known family connections of the extended families of the consuls of 95.

With the additional contacts between Cornelii Scipiones and Caecilii Metelli as well as between Caecilii Metelli and Claudii Pulchri, we have with these few families a sizeable collection of most known Roman statesmen of the era as well as about 20 consuls. This small group of people had a genuine and deep impact to the history of Rome and therefore history of western civilization.

Heart of lead, mouth of iron, beard of brass

This was how consul of 96 Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus was described by his colleague as censor L. Licinius Crassus, himself consul of 95.

Noble and base metals, greed and violence: end of Allobroges and Arverni

Metals of noble and base nature are pretty much how we could describe the Rome of their era also. After the Punic Wars Rome became the sole great power of the middle Mediterranean: Iron of Rome won the gold of Carthage. Great cities of Carthage and Corinth are destroyed while Africa and Macedonia are made provinces of Rome at 146.

The rise of Rome has brought undreamt riches into Rome and the most noble families are getting ever more rich and powerful. There is a growing sense of injustice amongst both poorer Romans and non-Roman Italians. Some 10 years after the end of the last Punic War the elder brother of Gracchi, Tiberius, rises into brief spotlight of fame by his campaign for land distribution to the poor, but he is murdered.

This is an era characterised by personal greed – one could say an era during which the traditional petty fights over privileges of families of a ruling elite in a small or medium city grow into larger scale of empires.

One amongst many determined to grab his share of this oyster of a Mediterranean world was Q. Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus. He was governor of Hispania in 123 and recieved reprimands of the Senate, by the initiative of C. Gracchus, brother of a murdered tribune Ti. Gracchus. Maximus had been extorting Hispanic cities of gifts, not so uncommon practice of Roman governors.

Father of the consul of 96 Ahenobarbus, also named as Cn. Domitius Aheneobarbus, was consul at next year 122. He went to war against the Gauls to secure land route into Roman areas in Hispania and got his command prolonged after his consulship as proconsul to continue the war. His successor as consul was above mentioned Maximus, who had a big personal interest in Hispania, and who also succeed elder Ahenobarbus as proconsul of Gallia Transalpina. They won the war against Gallian tribes of Allobroges and Arverni and held a spectacular triumph and secured financial base for their families for a long period from the loot.

Enter Crassus, securing of Gallia Transalpina

Alongside father Ahenobarbus and Maximus in the arrangements of the conquered province was a rising politician Crassus, who had been training Roman law under the most famous Roman lawyers of this era, the brothers Mucii Scaevolae (consuls of 133 and 117). He was involved in the establishing of the city of Narbo (modern Narbonne) at 118 with elder Ahenobarbus. Ahenobarbus also constructed the first Roman road in Gaul, the Via Domitia. By these arrangements the Romans made clear that the Mediterranean coast of Gallia beyond the Alps was theirs to keep.

Interlude: Making of Marius, a tale of bribery

During the years of 112-106 there was an episode of Roman history that is often described as disgraceful or embarrassing, namely the Jugurthan War. Events began at 118 when king of Numidia Micipsa died. He left his kingdom into his two sons Adherbal and Hiempsal and an adopted nephew Jugurtha. Hiempsal was assassinated by Jugurtha and Adherbal fled to Rome. The Senate divided Numidian territory half, but Jugurtha bribed the Roman embassy and got himself the best parts of Numidia. At 113 Jugurtha attacked against Adherbal and after bribing Romans again got permission to kill him and take his territory. However, when sacking Adherbals capital Cirta and Jugurtha got several Romans or Italians living there killed as well. Senate declared war at 112 against Numidia of Jugurtha.

This was followed by an invasion by L. Calpurnius Bestia (consul 111), upon which Jugurtha surrendered and was given so blatantly favourable terms, that bribery was evident. Jugurtha was called to Roman to stand and testify in the court. Jugurtha bribed Roman tribunes to prevent him testifying and tried to get his cousin killed while in Rome. Jugurtha was expelled. At 110 Jugurtha defeated the army of a praetor A. Postumius Albinus Magnus, whose brother Sp. Postumius Albinus was consul that year. Behind defeat was again bribery. Consul of 109 Q. Caecilius Metellus followed into Numidia and won Jugurtha on the field, but waited to deliver final blow against him in order to win a triumph for himself.

His waiting proved to be a mistake because his sub-commander C. Marius was eyeing his position. Marius promised to end the war within a year if he would be elected as consul. After years of bribery and failure this homo novus outside the ruling nobility was able to gather massive support and was elected as consul and arranged a voting at comitia tributa to grant command in Numidia for himself. This was actually a breach in the custom where the Senate should have been the one deciding about military commands.

Marius won the war eventually with the aid of his sub-commander L. Cornelius Sulla Felix. Sulla and Marius were not finished with each other at that point: after having six consulships, victories over several enemies and Sulla being appointed as consul to end the Social War, Marius and Sulla fought a civil war against each other, but let’s look that at some another time in more detail.

Summer eternal: Ahenobarbus, Crassus and Scaevola

The story of younger Ahenobarbus and Crassus continued during the Jugurthan war and Marius’ consulships between years 104 and 100. Elder Ahenobarbus died at 104 after serving also as a censor and pontifex. As Censor he is remembered from expelling over thirty senators from the Senate.

The rise of his son into highest offices was obviously helped by his contacts inside the ruling elite and by the immense wealth gathered from the wars by him and his father. Younger Ahenobarbus still showed his gifts also by prosecuting his political enemies in the courts of law, including the leading Roman statesman M. Aemilius Scaurus, who had been protesting against Jugurtha and his bribery. Younger Ahenobarbus was also dismayed by not being selected as pontifex after his father died. As consequence he intiated a law that pontifices would be elected by people in the future, not by the collegium pontificium. He was elected as Pontifex Maximus at 103.

Crassus and younger Ahenobarbus were probably close in age and it might be that they had served together under elder Ahenobarbus back in the war against Gallic tribes. Crassus excelled in his public career through his skills in public speaking and in law courts. He is also known because he trained young M. Tullius Cicero when he arrived into Rome from his home town Arpinum (from which also his relative C. Marius was from originally). Crassus was politically allied with Marius and his daughter married Marius’ son. Crassus himself married with daughter of Q. Mucius Scaevola Augur, consul of 117, whom we remember being a tutor of Crassus also. It is telling that the uncle of consul 117 Scaevola was married with Licinia, a sister of consul 171 P. Licinius Crassus. Their grandson was consul of 95 Q. Mucius Scaevola, who also married a Licinia.

So both Crassus and Scaevola followed younger Ahenobarbus as consuls at 95.

As Consuls Crassus and Scaevola enacted the Lex Licinia Mucia which decreed all but the citizens to leave the city of Rome. This law sparked events that woke up the long dormant crises between Rome and other Italian cities thus eventually erupting into the Social War some five years after their consulship.

Before that, at 92, three years after their consulships, both younger Ahenobarbus and Crassus were elected as censors. Both Ahenobarbus and Crassus were public figures with high profile and there are numerous anecdotes about their joint office and quarrels. Ahenobarbus had a violent temper and he favoured simple ways of life whereas Crassus was much more polished and enjoyed luxuries. They did agree one thing however: they enacted a statement that forbid the Latin rhetorical schools, and thus effectively preventing men of lower social status from rising into prominence – education was also back in those days an issue of power politics.

Crassus died the next year 91, consequently the same year his pupil Cicero got his toga of manhood. His other daughter married P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica Serapio (consul of 111).

Ahenobarbus died few years later at year 88 during the consulship of Sulla. Into his position as Pontifex Maximus Scaevola (consul of 95) was elected, thus rising him into the highest elite of Roman republic. Between his consulship and election as Pontifex Maximus Scaevola served as a governor in the province of Asia. He was a model of just Roman governor and his edict of administration became a model for future Roman provincial governors. He also prosecuted harshly the unjust tax collectors. As Pontifex Maximus he also proved to be a model one by making sure that the traditional rituals were followed. He was also a celebrated writer of 18 volumes of treatise on civil law.

Scaevola was actually married twice with Licinia. First Licinia was famed for her beauty, but unfaithful. Their daughter became the wife of Cn. Pompeius Magnus. This first Licinia married later on Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos, consul of 98. The second Licinia of Scaevola is of unknown relation.

Scaevola died at 82 in the commotion of the struggle between Sulla and Marius. Scaevola refused to join the Marian party and finally chased by mob into the temple of Vesta, killed and thrown into Tiber.

Period between the end of Punic Wars and the start of Social War

The period of 146 – 90 is about 50 years full of wars small and big and very profilic Roman senators, unimaginable suffering of victims of wars, unimaginable riches flowing into Rome, stories of pride, heritage, adultery, greed, valor, enlightment, science, arts and acts of individual courage and skills – one might get a feeling of ever faster spnning spiral of grand historical events. The period is one most admired and most condemned in the history of Roman republic.

Through these three figures: Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus (cos 96), L. Licinius Crassus (cos 95) and Q. Mucius Scaevola (cos 95), a many sided and rich glimpse into this fascinating period be can be casted. Their deeds, their connections and actions, the events they were part of, all tell the tale of true Roman history and how Roman society worked, what drove the individuals on and how they eventually met their fate.